The Value of Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola) as Feed Ingredient and Anti-Microbial Agent for Layers and Rabbits.
Esiegwu, Arthur Chidozie
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Two experiments were conducted to determine the value of bitter kola as feed ingredient and antimicrobial agent for laying hens and growing rabbits. Vitamin C and mineral analysis of the bitter kola showed that it contained 0.028 mg/g magnesium, 0.025mg/g calcium, 0.161mg/g potassium, 0.057mg/g phosphorus, 0.282mg/g sodium, 0.400mg/g chlorine, 0.073mg/g sulphur, 0.02mg/g Fe, 0.003mg/g zinc, 0.05 mg/g cupper, 0.012mg/g manganese and 11.43mg/100g vitamin C. In the first experiment, four layer diets were formulated to contain bitter kola seed meal at dietary levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, designated as T0, T2.5, T5.0, and T7.5, respectively. Four groups of 30 Hyline brown laying hens were randomly assigned to the four treatment diets in a completely randomized design and fed for 84 days. T2.5 had significantly (P<0.05) low hen-day egg production but there were no significant differences in egg weight and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in feed intake (P>0.05) but feed intake tended to increase with increase in dietary Garcinia kola seed meal. The layers on T7.5 gained significantly (P<0.05) more body weight. Egg shell weight and percent shell weight, shell thickness, egg shape index, egg shell index and Haugh unit as well as egg length, egg width, yolk width, yolk length, albumen height, albumen length and albumen width were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). Bitter kola tended to increase albumen weight and to decrease the yolk weight. T2.5 had significantly (P<0.05) higher percent albumen whereas the control (T0) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the bitter kola groups in percent yolk weight. There were no significant effects (P>0.05) in most of the haematological parameters (PCV, HB, WBC and RBC). There were no traces of eosinophils, basophils and monocytes, and no significant differences in MCV, MCH and MCHC among the treatments (P>0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences occurred in serum total protein, percent albumn, percent globulin, glucose and cholesterol. There were also no treatment effects (P>0.05) on the serum electrolytes (Na, K and Hco3). Serum calcium was significantly (P<0.05) high at 7.5% dietary level compared to the control. Bitter kola diets did not have any effect (P>0.05) on liver, gizzard, abdominal fat and intestinal weights. Bitter kola tended to decrease the weight of the kidney and the heart. Dressed weights were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). Bitter kola inhibited the growth of salmonella spp, Ascaris lumbricoides and oocyst of Isospora belli at 5.0% and 7.5% dietary levels. There were histological alterations of the kidney, liver and gizzard. The main cellular changes include distortion of general tissue architecture, tissue stroma proliferation, oedema of tissue, hyperthrophy and necrosis. In the second experiment, bitter kola seed meal was used in formulating four rabbit grower mash at dietary levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%, designated as T0, T2.5, T5.0, and T7.5, respectively. Each diet was fed to 9 grower rabbits for 84 days. The Garcinia kola groups consumed significantly (P<0.05) more feed than the control. The average body weight change and average daily body weight gain of the groups on bitter kola diets decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control. Feed conversion ratio of the control was significantly (P<0.05) lower than the bitter kola groups. There were no significant treatment effects (P>0.05) in most of the haematological parameters (PCV, HB, WBC, RBC). MCV, MCHC and MCH were also not affected by treatments (P>0.05). There were no traces of basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. The lymphocytes and neutrophils of the control were only significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of T7.5. The platelets increased with increase in dietary levels of bitter kola. Biochemical indices (serum proteins, serum albumin, serum globulin and serum cholesterol) were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). The glucose level of the bitter kola groups were drastically lowered. The electrolytes (potassium, sodium and chlorine) as well as calcium levels were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). Dressed weight, liver and heart weights were not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). The weights of the kidney decreased with increase in bitter kola inclusion. Similarly abdominal fat decreased with increase in dietary bitter kola. At 7.5% dietary level, the weight of skin was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Bitter kola was unable to eliminate cysts of Isospora bellies in rabbits, but inhibited the growth of Salmonella and Streptococcus spp at 5.0% and 7.5% inclusion levels. Escherichia coli and Staphylococus aureus were not affected. Histological alterations of the liver and kidney were observed at 5.0% and 7.5% dietary levels. The cellular changes observed were moderate oedema with tissue stroma proliferation, glomeruli atrophy with marked cellularity within the tuft.