Biochemical Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Mucuna utilis on Lead Acetate Induced Toxicity on Wistar Albino Rats
Nwanebu, A. P.
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This study investigated the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Mucuna utilis (EEMu) on lead acetate induced toxicity on Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity analysis of the plant extract produced no lethality even at high doses of 3000 mg/kg body weight. Twenty albino rats weighing 115 – 235 g were divided into four (4) groups; the first groupof animals served as normal control and were not administered either lead acetate or EEMU. The second group was treated intraperitoneally with lead acetate only once and were not administered EEMU. The third group was administered 300 mg/kg EEMU daily and after 21 days, was exposed to lead acetate once, while the fourth group wasadministered 600 mg/kg EEMU daily for 21 days and was later exposed to lead acetate once. The duration of the studies was for three weeks. Blood samples were used for biochemical analysis while liver and kidney tissues were used for histological studies. The urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, Na+, K+, Cl¯, HCO3¯, liver MDA and kidney MDA concentrations as well as ALP, ALT, and AST activities of the groups exposed to lead acetate without any treatment were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those treated with EEMU after lead acetate exposure. The total protein, and albumin concentrations and , liver SOD, kidney SOD and liver GPx activities of the groups exposed to lead acetate without treatment were significantly low (P<0.05) compared to the normal control and those treated with EEMU after lead acetate exposure. Liver and kidney tissue sections showed that the plant prevented the portal triad as well as the glomerulus from being damaged in the plant treatment groups. The overall investigation showed that Mucuna utilis has a potential to ameliorate damage to liver and kidney tissues.