Effect of Sub Lethal Concentration of Glyphosate Based Herbicide on Some Biochemical Parameters of Male Clarias Gariepinus
Ezema, J. C.
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The effect of sublethal concentration of glyphosate on some biochemical parameters of male Clarias gariepinus was investigated. Healthy matured (4 months) male Clarias gariepinus were used as test and control organism. The effect on male reproductive hormone (testosterone), thyroid hormone, oxidative stress biomarkers, liver function parameters and haematological parameters were determined. Results obtained revealed that testosterone concentration in exposed groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of Clarias gariepinus in control group. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxin (T4) concentration in exposed groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the control group where as triiodothyronine (T3) concentration in exposed groups were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of the liver, kidney and gill of exposed fish were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in exposed groups were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control group while catalase (CAT) activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in exposed fish. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the gill of exposed fish was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the control group. The exposure of Clarias gariepinus to glyphosate also caused a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum bilirubin. The haematological response of Clariasgariepinus exposed to the concentration of glyphosate showed a significant increase in white blood cell count (WBC) and a reduction of erythrocyte count (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB) level, platelet (PLT) and procalcitonin (PCT) concentration of the blood. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed on LY, MID, GRAM, MCV, HCT, MCH, MCHC, RDWSD, RDWCV, MPV and PDW. This study shows that glyphosate may induce hormonal changes, oxidative stress, hepatoxicity and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus and therefore should not be used indiscriminately.