Antidiabetic Properties of Total Phenol Content of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides Leaves on Albino Rats
Ekwemba, C. O.
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In this study, we evaluated the effect of the total phenol extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves on oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile, liver function, oxidative stress parameters, and pancreas histopathology in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate in a dose of 130 mg/kg b/w. Total phenol content of Z. zanthoxyloides leaves was administered to rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w daily for 15 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucose oxidase method; lipid profile, liver function and oxidative stress parameters were monitored by standard methods and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. The results showed an increase in blood glucose level of the rats after administration of alloxan monohydrate. Two weeks after treatment with Z. zanthoxyloides, a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose was recorded within the treatment groups compared to the untreated control group. Total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the treated groups, with lowest values recorded in the group treated with the highest concentration of the extract. The result also showed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were lowest on treatment with highest concentration of the phenol extract, while glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C levels were increased in the treated groups compared to the diabetic and untreated groups. The result of the pancreatic histopathology further supported the protective effect of Z. zanthoxyloides phenol extract towards diabetic damage. From these results, we suggested that total phenolics of Z. zanthoxyloides may be effective in controlling blood glucose level in diabetics, and in protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.