Investigation of Aba River Contamination Using Eichhornia crassipes as Bio-indicator
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The seasonal variation of heavy metal contamination levels in Aba River of Abia State in Nigeria was investigated using Eichhornia crassipies. Routine sampling was performed on bi-monthly bases to cover the Nigerian Rainy season and Harmattan season. Iron (Fe) showed more abundance with maximum concentration (69.5 mg/kg) mainly in Dec/Jan at UST, PZA, ABT and DST sampling points. The lowest concentration of iron was obtained in Apr/May for UST and DST and in Oct/Nov for PZA and ABT. Manganese showed maximum concentration (7 mg/kg) in the dry season at PZA and NBL during Oct/Nov months. The lowest concentration was in Dec/Jan at UST, PZA and ABT which were Harmattan seasons. The varied concentrations of zinc (Zn) demonstrated no pattern or trend except at Oct/Nov of ABT at value of 9.7 mg/kg, while lead (Pb) metal was significantly identified during the months of Feb/March (end of Harmattan) and April/May (beginning of Rains) during the seasonal study. Chromium metal (Cr) was uniformly distributed but significant at NBL Original Research Article Akagha et al.; CJAST, 22(1): 1-7, 2017; Article no.CJAST.34436 2 during months of Jun/Jul. Nickel (Ni) metal was detected mainly at UST, PZA and NBL at trace levels. Copper was mainly detected during rainy seasons of Apr/May and Jun/July but remained at low concentrations when compared to other metals. Hence, UST and PZA sampling points contained the most active level of heavy metals, while Harmattan season showed the highest phytochemical activity of the heavy metals. Therefore Eichhornia crassipes showed metal removal in the following order Fe > Mn> Cr > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd.